The first section of this paper presents original data on the growth in the rate of motorization, the makeup of the car fleet, travel modes and trip destinations – data that have primarily been collected in surveys by the authors as part of an ongoing project designed to develop a comprehensive West Bank transport dataset that previously did not exist. The second part describes the land use composition in the West Bank in an attempt to show linkages between land use and transportation. Moreover, the section presents a preliminary model of pollution emissions for the Palestinian and Jewish settler car fleets in an attempt to test how the presence of settler cars affects air pollution in the West Bank. The third section presents the dual structure of the road network in the West Bank, both Palestinian and Israeli settler, and offers a case study of how that dual network worsens pollution levels, travel continuity and the Palestinian economy. Finally, the last section outlines the pressing problems in land use and transport planning that must be confronted in the system, and offers recommendations and scenarios for sustainable future development.